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中南大学学报(自然科学版)

Journal of Central South University

第35卷    第1期    总第155期    2004年2月

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文章编号:1672-7207(2004)01-0031-08
抗菌剂及其抗菌机理
夏金兰,王 春,刘新星

(中南大学资源加工与生物工程学院,湖南长沙,410083)

摘 要: 抗菌剂包括无机、有机和天然生物抗菌剂三大类型。无机抗菌剂以新型光催化型和载银的纳米复合型抗菌材料为主要发展趋势,其中光催化型无机抗菌剂依赖光致激发的强氧化自由基而起杀菌作用;载银等金属离子型抗菌剂通过与活性基团如巯基键合或置换金属离子辅基等方式使微生物的生命活性物质失活而起抗菌作用。有机抗菌剂则以开发专效于生物分子(如微生物代谢酶、膜受体等)的抗菌剂为其拓展方向,其通过作用于细胞壁和细胞膜系统、生化反应酶、遗传物质等达到抗抑或杀菌作用。天然生物抗菌剂可来源于所有生物体,主要包括多糖、多肽及糖肽聚合物类物质,是未来抗菌材料的主要发展方向;它们作用于微生物胞外结构层或酶等生物活性物质,影响微生物的运动、跨膜物质运输或生化反应等。不同的抗菌剂对同一种病原菌有不同的抗菌作用机理和有效性,同一种抗菌剂对于不同的病原菌也有不同的抗菌作用机制和抑制范围;得到既长效又广谱、既高效又安全的抗菌剂,对其抗菌机理的研究十分重要。

 

关键字: 抗菌剂;杀菌剂;无机抗菌剂;有机抗菌剂;天然生物抗菌剂;抗菌机理

Research on antimicrobial agents and their mechanisms of actions
XIA Jin-lan,WANG Chun, LIU Xin-xing

School of Resource Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China

Abstract:Antimicrobial agents may be in form of inorganic, organic or natural biological. The inorganic ones are stressed on the light-activated catalysis by the active oxidation of some free groups produced on the material surface , and Ag-supported complex nano-materials function as germicides by being bound to some active group. Some organic agents that function on the microbial cell envelope, biochemical reaction chain or even genetic system due to their highly specificity for some biomolecules are to be stressed on, in order to wider the application of the organic antimicrobial agents to fields, such as medical treatment and health care. The natural biological antimicrobial agents could come from any living organism. They may include both small and large biomolecules, that function on microbial extracellular layer or some bioactive materials, e.g., enzymes, and affect microbial movement, mass transfer through membrane or some biochemical reaction. With the requirements for environmental protection and rapid development of biotechnology, development and application of the natural biological antimicrobial agents that has been stayed on empirical level will become the most important targets for both fundamental and applied researches pertinent to medical treatment, health care, food protection and biomedical production, indicating a huge application potential of this kind of agents. While different antimicrobial agents may have different antimicrobial mechanisms and antibacterial spectrum on the same pathogen, and so does one antimicrobial agent to different pathogens.

 

Key words: antimicrobial agents; germicides; inorganic antimicrobial agents; organic antimicrobial agents; natural bio-antimicrobial agents; antimicrobial mechanisms

中南大学学报(自然科学版)
  ISSN 1672-7207
CN 43-1426/N
ZDXZAC
中南大学学报(英文版)
  ISSN 2095-2899
CN 43-1516/TB
JCSTFT
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